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Some terms used in psychology

Agoraphobia:The situation in which the person avoids and/or takes precautions in areas outside his/her own safe area, thinking that he/she will not be able to escape and seek help.

Agitation:Extreme restlessness, general arousal, and purposeless behavior caused by tension and anxiety.

Akathisia – Akathisia:Motor restlessness syndrome, characterized by restlessness and an urge to move, usually following the use of antipsychotic drugs.

 

Ambivalence:Having mixed or contradictory feelings about a person, object, event or situation; the state of having contradictory ideas. In other words, it is the collection of incompatible feelings, thoughts, wishes and goals in the person at the same time. 

Amnesia:Partial or complete inability to remember past experiences, memory loss.

Anamnesis:Information about the patient's current or past illnesses, from himself or a relative.


Andrejoni:The name given to the mixture of male and female characteristics.


Androgen:Male hormone produced by the testicles.

Anhedonia (Pleasure):Withdrawal from all ordinary and pleasurable activities and loss of interest are often associated with depression.

Anxiety:A type of emotion characterized by signs of bodily tension and anxiety about impending danger, disaster, or misfortune.

Anorexia nervosa:The restrictive type or binge eating-purging type, which progresses for at least three months in two different types, the restrictive type is observed as restriction from what they eat or excessive exercise, and the binge-eating type is observed as a binge eating out of sight and secretly behind the back of the person knowingly and willingly. A psychological disorder in which vomiting is observed.

Antisocial:engage in social behavior that does not conform to social norms

Archetype:The hypothetical component that makes up the mind according to the approach of Analytical Psychology theory. Archetypes are a framework for perceiving the world (reference), the cornerstones in the formation of personality structure.

asyndetic:The absence of a logical connection between thoughts.

 

BEE

Dependence:It is the continuation of use of a substance with the thought that it provides pleasure, pleasure or benefit, even though it negatively affects the physiological and psychological health, the desire to quit cannot be answered and the desire to take the substance cannot be stopped.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder:Mental preoccupation and preoccupation with or without flaws in one's external appearance.

Memory:The ability to consciously retain any information, store it, and recall it when necessary.

Ego:I, self, and personality are often used interchangeably. It describes the organized integrity of emotions, attitudes and behaviors that make a person that person and distinguish them from others. How a person perceives and comprehends his/her self, sees himself and how he values himself.

Consciousness:The individual's self-awareness, that is, the state of being aware and in control of his feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

Unconscious:All of the behaviors that the organism does without being aware of its internal experiences and the external world. It was developed in Sigmund Freud's theory of Psychoanalysis.

Bipolar disorder:A type of psychological disorder in which a person experiences periods of mania or hypomania, and periods of depression or major depression.

Individual:A person who constitutes human societies, has similar aspects of people, but also has distinctive distinctive features, is an individual.

Bulimia Nervosa:The difference from anorexia nervosa is that the body mass index (BMI) is above 18.  (See Anorexia nervosa)

 

LETTER C

Cerea Flexibilitas (Wax Flexibility):The ability to give a person a mold-like stance.


Cognitive:cognitive states.


Comorbidity:A second disease state added to the main disease.


Conduct Disorder:Conduct disorder in childhood.

LETTER C

Environmental:An overly detailed, circumstantial way of thinking and/or speaking.

 

LETTER D

Behaviour:The totality of the organism's responses to stimuli

Delirium:It is an acute clouding of consciousness with delusions and hypotheses due to organic brain disorder.

Delusion:It is also referred to as a delusion. Delusions about improbable and often highly personal ideas or belief systems that are disapproved by culture or subculture, and are held up against their irrationality or evidence to the contrary.

Dementia:Chronic, often irreversible cognitive dysfunction. It is due to organic brain disorder.

Depersonalization:A feeling of not belonging to oneself, of being an outside observer to one's own thoughts, feelings, feelings, ideas, actions.

Depression:It is a kind of psychological disorder characterized by the person feeling depressed, unable to get attention and pleasure, unhappy, sluggish, anorexia, worthless almost every day for two weeks.

Derealization:The feeling of alienation from one's environment, from the concrete world around him.

My external reflection:It is the reflection of one's unique wishes, feelings and designs to the outside world.

Attention:A process that provides selective awareness of a part or feature of the sensory environment, or selective reactivity to a group of stimuli.

Dyslexia:Not caused by subnormal intelligence, aphasia, cultural deprivation, lack of learning motivation, or psychological disorder; disorders of primary, congenital or developmental origin in learning to read and spell; developmental or acquired difficulty in reading.

Dysmorphophobia:It is the thought that a part of the body is seen as abnormal.

Dissociation:Dissociation, which means separation, separation, separation, is the temporary separation, splitting, breaking of emotions, thoughts, memories and similar contents in the mind, which threatens the spiritual integrity of the person in psychology.

Dissociative Amnesia:It is the temporary forgetting of an event or the time when the event occurred. Forgotten information usually comes back on its own in less than 24 hours.

Dissociative fugue:It is the state of being unable to remember the entire past out of nowhere. It may take 8-10 days. After a certain time, the forgotten information comes back automatically.

Dissociative Identity Disorder:A state of identity fragmentation by experiencing two or more very distinct personality states.

Dysthymia:It is a kind of psychological disorder in which the person feels depressed, unhappy, sluggish, and depressed for at least two years and is not in a happy, strong, energetic mood for more than 2 months in total in these two years.

Depersonalization:Decreased stimulus-induced emotions or responsiveness.

Desensitization:A method of reducing an individual's emotion or response to a stimulus through systematic exposure to the phobic situations or objects.

Feeling:A unique spiritual meaning and impression that a certain object, event or individual arouses in the inner world of a person.

mood:Persistent or temporary mood-affecting feeling or prolonged mood of the person; current and ongoing subjective state and associated experiences (for example, anger, elation, or depression)

Thought block:It is the sudden pause of thought seen in schizophrenia.

Confusion of thought:One's thoughts may be thoughts that others have put into their head, or that one's own thoughts are being filmed or broadcast. It is seen in schizophrenia.

Thought Compression:It is seen in mania. There is excessive talking and thinking.

Thought flight:It is common in manic patients. They are sudden changes that occur due to instantaneous changes in the flow of thought.

Idea:Reflection of the external world on the human mind. idea, idea, idea

 

LETTER E

Operant conditioning:Skinner's work, which argues that the way to learn a behavior, or to increase or decrease its frequency, is to give rewards and punishments for that behavior.

Effort:Increased feeling of well-being.

Ego:It is the part of the personality that is usually conscious and connected to reality.

Echolalia and echopraxia:The state of imitating the speech and behavior of others.

ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy):Moderate electric shock applied to the temples of patients with extreme emotional depression.

Electra Complex:The daughter unconsciously competes with the mother for the desire to have the father with the penis and blames the mother for depriving her of a penis. It is one of Freud's most controversial theories.

Co-diagnosis:If the person has an ongoing substance use disorder or another psychological disorder due to the main application to the clinic

 

LETTER F

Pharmacodynamics:Pharmacology is the branch of science that studies the effects of drugs on the body.

Pharmacokinetics:It is a sub-branch of pharmacology that examines processes such as absorption, distribution, transformation and excretion of drugs into the body by establishing mathematical models.

Pharmacology:Pharmaceutical science.

Fixation:The stagnation of personality development in an immature period.

Phobia:Extreme fear, disgust, avoidance, or distance from a particular object, creature, or situation.

Forer effect:The state of believing that certain general or ambiguous statements fit perfectly. It is frequently seen in fortune telling and horoscope interpretations. Also called the Barnum effect

Fugue:The type of memory loss in which the patient moves away from his environment and acquires a new identity and a new life.

Fuscation:It is a term belonging to Freud's theory of psychosexual development. The state of being stuck at a certain stage of development.

 

LETTER G

Ability to Evaluate the Truth:Objectively evaluating and judging the world outside one's own.

gerontophilia:Passionate about having sexual relations with older people.

Visual Agnosia:Loss of the ability to recognize objects or people.

Grandiose:Exaggerating one's own importance, power, knowledge, and identity and experiencing ideas of greatness.

Grief:grief, do not mourn.

 

AITCH

Hallucination:A state of misperception without external stimuli.

Hallucinogen:General name of substances that cause hallucinations.

Herpetophobia:Lizard phobia.

Delirium:They are false but solid and unchangeable, absurd, meaningless, unrealistic and generally unconstitutional thoughts and beliefs.

Hyperphagia:Increased appetite and food intake overeating.


Hyperkinesis (Hyperactivity):restless aggressive destructive activity

Hypersomnia:oversleeping

Hypnagogic Phenomenon:False sensory perception during just falling asleep.

Hypokinesia (Hypoactivity):Slowing down in psychomotor and cognitive activities.

Hypokinesia (Hypoactivity):Slowing down in psychomotor and cognitive activities.

Hypochondrial Delusions:Illness Delusions. Delusions in which the person is constantly preoccupied with his own health. Anxiety is the belief that a person has a serious illness, known or unknown, accompanied by worry and fear.

Hypochondriasis:Having exaggerated concerns about one's health. Even some body changes that are normal are interpreted as signs of a physical illness.

Hysteria:A type of psychoneurotic disorder characterized by psychic and motor disturbances, especially with psychosomatic complaints of various systems, such as irritability in emotional reactions, irritability, movement disorders, temporary personality changes, and loss of daily memory.

Hysterical Anesthesia:Loss of sensation caused by emotional conflicts.

Homeostasis:Balancing.

 

LETTER I

ID:The source that energizes the individual in Freud's theory of personality, where all the instincts of the individual are stored. The lower self.


Identification:Sensations that the deceased still exists.


Illusion:The optical illusion is the perception of external visual stimuli as different from what they are. It can be seen in normal people as well as mental illness.


Implosion:A form of stimulus attribution in the treatment of phobia.

Imago:In psychoanalysis, it is an inner picture developed subconsciously for a certain person, remaining unconscious and equipped with certain features.

Immune system:Immune system. The body's mechanism of fighting against infectious agents.

Infanticide:It is a term denoting that a parent deliberately kills their own child, older than 1 month and younger than 1 year.


Insomnia:Decreased or absent sleep.


Instinct:Instinct


Introjection:import


Introvert:Introvert


IPT:Interpersonal psychotherapy-interpersonal psychotherapy


Irritable Mood:Easily angered and angered when provoked.


Insulation:Isolation of emotion, not reflection.

LETTER J

Jalousie Morbide:abnormal jealousy


Jamais Wu:A delusional feeling that the person does not recognize a real situation they have experienced before.


Jargon Aphasia:The uttering of nonsense words with various intonations and ups and downs.

 

LETTER K

Cannabinoid:Marijuana


Castration:The behavior of cutting the penis or testicles. It is more common in transgender individuals.


Catalepsy:The name given to the stance that is constantly maintained without moving.


Cataplexy:Temporary loss and weakness in muscle tone triggered by various emotional states.


Catharsis:bringing to consciousness and reexperiencing repressed emotions caused by traumatic events in psychoanalytic theory. Bringing strong and suppressed emotions to the surface provides relief.


Word Salad:The situation of saying meaningless words together, independently of each other, with different words. The person is constantly talking, but no meaning can be drawn from the conversations. It is common in schizophrenia.


Delusions of Discovery:A state of frivolous seeking to discover things that no one else has found.


Kinophobia:Dog phobia.


Kleptomania:Compulsion to steal regardless of its economic value.


Claustrophobia:Phobia of being indoors.

Compulsion (Compulsion):It is the pathological need to act on an anxiety-provoking urge when resisted. It usually occurs following the obsession. For example, obsession with pollution and compulsion to wash hands.


Confusion:Disorientation towards time and place.


Coprofile:Desire for sexual pleasure in the form of eating or playing with feces in men and women.


Coprophobia:Defecation phobia.


Coprolalia:The situation where sexual, vulgar or insulting words are said compulsively, in a way that is contrary to the norm, in the place and in number.


Persecution Delusions (Persecution):It is the unrealistic thoughts that the person around him or imaginary people will harm him.


Chronic:continuous


Delusions of Smallness (Micromanic Delusions):The state of feeling powerless and useless in every way.

 

LETTER L

Lability:Playing in emotional reactions in a short time


Landau-Kleffner Syndrome:Acquired aphasia with epilepsy


Latency:Security


Lethargy:Drowsiness is the feeling of being sleepy and inactive.


Letologica:Temporary loss of ability to remember object or person names.


Libido:In classical psychoanalytic theory, this energy was first used in the narrow sense of sexual energy, then the concept was expanded to include all kinds of expressions of love, pleasure and self-protection. Accordingly, libido is: 1. the psychic energy of the life instinct in general, 2. the energy of the sexual instinct and also the aggressive instinct in the specific sense.


Decreased Libido:Decreased sexual interest, drive, and performance (increased libido may be associated with manic states).

Logore (verbal diarrhea):Talking too much, coherently, logically, and copiously.


LSD (Lisergic Acid Diethylamide):A semisynthetic psychoactive hallucinogen. It is considered the most effective drug in the world.

 

LETTER M

mania:It is an abnormal and persistently elevated mood disorder that causes marked impairment in the patient's functionality, impairs judgment.

Mannerism:An artificial or exaggerated form of speech or movement.

MAO (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors):It is a class of drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase enzyme activity. It can be used in the treatment of depression.

Maternal Attachment:A type of attachment that persists after birth and has a significant impact on the development of the maternal role.

Maternal Filicide:It is a term that refers to the deliberate killing of a mother's own child.

Maternal:Mom.

Materialism:The view that everything is made of tangible matter and is subject to the laws of physics.

Masochism:It is a type of sexual disorder that emphasizes the person's desire to feel pain.


Megalomania:The state of seeing oneself as abnormally large and important.


Mental Retardation:Having a mental retardation at a level that interferes with social and occupational functionality.


Metabolic Delusions:The state of thinking that the body has changed into another object.

Mystical Delusions:Delusions that the person is in religious high places.

Monomania:Worry too much about one thing.

Munchausen Syndrome:The caregiver (mother, caregiver) of someone (mostly the child) causes signs of illness in the caregiver (e.g., changing test samples, damaging, injuring, etc.) pretending to exist. The person looks sad and worried in the face of the illness in the person he cares for.


Mutism:Loss of voice, absence of speech, although the person has no structural abnormality.

 

LETTER N

Necrophilia:Sexual pleasure towards the dead.


Negativism:It is aimless resistance to all attempts to be moved or to all commands.


nymphomania:It is the need for excessive and compulsive sexual intercourse in women.


Neologism (Language-Making):New language symbols are fabrication, with thought and association disorders affecting words.


Neurosis:Nervous system disorders that do not have a physiological explanation for reality assessment. Includes persistent distress, but not delusions or hallucinations.


Nihilistic Delusions:The false notion that oneself, other people, or the world does not exist or is coming to an end.
Nominal Aphasia: Difficulty finding the correct name for an object.


Neurotransmitter:A biochemical substance with an excitatory or inhibitory effect, used in the type of inter-neuronal communication that takes place over chemical synapses.

 

LETTER O

Obsession:Undesirable obsessive ideas that we can't get rid of even though we know they are wrong, that cannot be removed by logic and reasoning.

Oedipus complex:According to the psychoanalytic theory, the boy's feelings and thoughts about adopting the mother and eliminating the father. According to Freud, the first love of every child is the parent of the opposite sex. For girls, see Elektra Complex  

Oligophrenia:A condition in which mental functioning capacity and adaptive behaviors are significantly below the normal limits and are inadequate.

Onychophagia:Nail biting compulsion

Opioid (Specific Substance):Composed of opium derivatives and synthetic substances; The name given to all substances such as morphine, heroin, cocaine.

Autism: 

  • 1-Autistic thought: The individual is buried in personal fantasies and delusions. Their thoughts are separated from external realities. It can be seen in schizophrenia.

  • 2-Childhood autism: It is a childhood psychosis.

Autoeroticism:Masturbation.

Automutation:It is a form of suicide or self-punishment in the form of organ cutting.

 

LETTER O

Euphoria:Feelings of greatness accompanied by intense enthusiasm.


Euthymic Status:Normal mood spectrum.


Suicide (Suicide) Thoughts:Presence of suicidal ideas.

Identification:It is the conscious or unconscious adoption of the characteristics of another person, often admired.

LETTER P

Panphobia:The state of being afraid of everything, including one's own self.


Paramnesia:Misremembering of memories with distortions in recall.


Paranoid Delusion:It includes delusions of persecution (persecution) and reference (reference). They are the delusions that they will be enmity and harmed.


Paranoia:Untruthful skepticism.  

Parapraxia:Language and movement slips in daily life.


Parasomnia:The emergence of an abnormal (such as fear  Sleepwalking) situation during sleep.

Paraphilia:disorder characterized by repetitive and intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve unusual and abnormal objects, actions, or situations for sexual arousal and orgasm.


Parkinson's Disease:Tremor is a type of extrapyramidal syndrome, usually neurological in cause, accompanied by clinical features such as flattened mood and drooling.


pedophilia:paraphilia


Penis envy:According to the psychoanalytic theory put forward by Sigmund Freud, it is the lack that girls feel when they realize that they do not have a penis. 

Curtain Moment:A consciously bearable memory that obscures a painful memory.


Persecution:The delusion of seeing evil.


Perseveration:It is the repetition of a stereotyped word or phrase that starts spontaneously.

Pyromania:The desire to start a fire as a result of failure in impulse control.


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):Post-traumatic stress disorder. A mental trauma or mental health condition triggered by events that frighten, terrify, create helplessness, often unusual and unexpected.


Postpartum Psychosis:It is a postpartum psychosis.


Prevalence:It is the proportion of all subjects with a particular disease or diseases included in the study in a particular population, within a specified time period.


Prognosis:It is used to mean the course of the disease and whether there is a cure.

Postpartum depression:depression that occurs in the first three months after birth and lasts longer than two weeks. 

Projection:It is projecting personal inadequacies and unacceptable feelings onto people and factors in the outside world. It is an unconscious way of avoiding blame.


psychasthenia:Difficulty in decision making, a type of discomfort manifested by delusional phobias and unproductive pursuits.


Psychopharmacology:General name of drugs used in the treatment of psychological disorders.

Psychosomatic:It is a physiological dysfunction due to mental causes.


Psychosis:The name given to psychological disorders in which thought and sense are severely impaired.  Inability to distinguish reality from fantasy, impaired ability to evaluate reality, creation of new reality.


Puerperal Psychosis:Bipolar disorder that can occur in the first week after birth.

Pseudodementia:It is the deterioration of cognitive functions in a reversible functional disorder.

Pseudohallucination:It is a perception disorder that comes from the inner world of the person in the form of vision or hearing. The person evaluates the situation as unrealistic.

 

R

Reference:(in psychology) Offense.


Reference Considerations:They are ideas that are taken by misinterpreting external events.


Reference Delusions:Claims are delusions.


Rehabilitation:Spiritual healing and attunement.


relaxation:relaxation, relaxation


Retrograde Amnesia:Inability to remember events before a certain point in time.


Rorschach Test:It is a projective method that detects ink stains and examines the reasons for perception and personality dynamics.


Rumination:Mental rumination.

Resistance:Resisting interpretations of unconscious material during psychotherapy.

 

LETTER S

Sadism:One person's pleasure in hurting another.


Hallucination:Delusions about improbable and often highly personal ideas or belief systems that are disapproved by the culture or subculture, and are held persistently despite their illogicality or evidence to the contrary. Don't talk nonsense, don't talk nonsense, don't talk nonsense; includes believing in unreal things and unrealistic thoughts. 

Sedatives:Sedative group of drugs.


Symptom:symptom.


Syntactic Aphasia:Inability to arrange words in proper order.


Separation Anxiety:A type of phobic anxiety that can occur in children before or after separation from parents or someone they are attached to.


Simultanosia:Inability to grasp multiple elements of a visual scene at a glance or to combine parts as a whole.


Synesthesia:Sensation or hallucination caused by another sense.


Scopophilia (Surveillance):A sexual disorder characterized by a compulsive desire to spy on genitals or actions.


Somatic Delusion:False belief in one's bodily functions.


Somatization:Characterized by the patient's unrealistic or misinterpreted physical signs and sensations; To describe emotional tension in the form of physical complaints.


Somatopacnosis:Inability to recognize one's own body parts.


Somnolence:Excessive tendency to sleep.


Social Phobia:Phobic fear of crowds and social environments.


Stereotypy:Repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or expression seen in patients with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorder, tardive dyskinesia, and stereotypical movement disorder.


Sublimation:The sublimation defense mechanism. It is the redirection of blocked requests to socially acceptable channels.

Subliminal – subthreshold:Of or relating to stimuli below the threshold of awareness.

Subliminal perception:The situation in which weak (or fast) stimuli are perceived below the level of awareness.

Submission:Conscious suppression.


Guilt Delusions:The situation where a person holds himself responsible for all kinds of evil and evil in a way that goes against reality and logic.


Suicide:Suicide, suicidal.

cyclothymic:It is a personality type that tends to change in temperament.

Border case:It is the term used by psychotherapists for patients with borderline psychosis.

 

LETTER S

Schizoaffective Disorder:A psychological disorder that combines features of both schizophrenia and mood disorders.

Schizophrenia:Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder in which individuals interpret reality as abnormal and cannot distinguish between reality and unreality. It is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, extremely disorganized thinking and behavior that disrupt daily functioning.

Schizotpial:Personality disorder characterized by disturbance in the pattern of social and interpersonal relationships, cognitive and perceptual distortions, strange thoughts, strange speech, social anxiety, and strange behavior.

Schizoid Personality Disorder:Schizoid personality disorder is a disorder characterized by a lack of close relationships and a limitation in expressing emotions. 

 

LETTER T

Tangentiality:Discourse that does not return to the original topic, does not integrate with the main topic, is characterized by jumping talk.

Trance:A state of psychological dissociation characterized by the absence of voluntary movements and the transition of thought into a state of automatism.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): It is a mental illness that can occur in individuals after traumatic situations.

Trauma:Terrible and dangerous situations that endanger human life and threaten their safety

Trichotillomania:The compulsion to pull out your own hair.

 

LETTER U

Rhyming (Klang) Connotation:Sound similar  but not similar in meaning
association of words.


Sleep Paralysis:It is transient partial or complete paralysis that most commonly occurs on awakening.

 

LETTER U

Ulcerative Colitis:Hemorrhagic sores that may occur as a result of stress and cover the large intestine and rectum.

 

Unipolar Depression:Unilateral form of depression. Most people affected by unipolar depression will have only one depressive episode in their lifetime.

Urolagnia:A type of sexual disorder in which a person feels sexual pleasure from drinking urine or peeing on it.

 

LETTER V

hallucination: False sensory perception that is unreal, unrelated to stimuli.

Vegetative Findings:bodily dysfunction.


Ventilation:Don't breathe.


Verbal:Verbal therapy.


Verbigeneration (Senseless Repetition):An uninterrupted, meaningless, disjointed conversation going on and on.


Voyorism:surveillance

 

LETTER Y

Side Answer / Close Answer / Ganser:The patients give irrelevant, meaningless and side answers to the questions as a result of the association disorder they have. The general attitude of the patient seems to be mocking.

 

LETTER Z

Intelligence:The sum of the abilities to abstract, learn and adapt to new situations.

xenophobia:Fear of strangers.

Zoophilia:A type of paraphilia disorder in which the person has sexual intercourse with an animal.

Zoophobia:Fear of animals. 

REFERENCE

In the preparation of this article;

From kimpsychology.com (To goclick here) ve, 

Karakaş, S. (2017). prof. Dr. Sirel Karakaş Dictionary of Psychology: Computer Program and Database - www.psychologyozlugu.comExtracted from  (version: 5.2.0 / 2022). 

THE LETTER 'A

Abnormal – Abnormal:The state of not conforming to behavior that is considered typical, normal and normal by most of society or considered healthy. Abnormal - abnormal behavior.

Abstinence:Deprivation. The act of not using an addictive substance during the periods when the body is used to it, and removing it from the body. For example, a tobacco-addicted individual not smoking for several hours may initiate withdrawal symptoms.

Abulia:With a lack of initiative or impulse; loss of spontaneity in speech, thinking and movement.

Affective non-compliance:The situation where the person's reactions are inconsistent with events and circumstances.

Affect:Also known as emotion.  Describes immediate reactions to events.  It is often confused with mood. Mood is the feeling or prolonged emotional state that a person exhibits, either permanently or temporarily, that affects mood.

Aggression:Behavior that physically or psychologically harms other people—acts with the intent to harm or destroy property. Aggression.

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